These are some government reports and other publications that you may have heard mentioned during 2008 on television or on the radio, or read about in the newspapers. Many of these documents are in PDF format and require the Adobe Reader.
- Astronaut Health and Safety
- Death Sentence
- Gasoline Prices
- Gay Marriage
- Global Warming
- Government Waste
- Influenza Pandemic
- Iraq War
- Native Americans
- Prescription Drugs
- Presidential Transition
- Privacy and National Security
- Toy Safety
- Virginia Tech Shootings
- Findings of Astronaut Safety Review Following Astronaut Health Reviews (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
- A NASA Space Flight Safety Review has found no evidence to support claims that astronauts were impaired by alcohol when they flew in space. NASA chief of Safety and Mission Assurance Bryan O'Connor conducted the month-long review to evaluate allegations included in the Astronaut Health Care System Review Committee's Report to the Administrator, which was released in late July.
- Structurally Deficient Bridge Status Report (Texas Department of Transportation)
- After reviewing state and federal regulations that limit the release of bridge information collected for federal reports, and additional homeland security constraints on the publication of data regarding the state's critical infrastructure, the Texas Department of Transportation released a list of the state's 2,024 structurally deficient bridges. Although the term structurally deficient has recently been used in news accounts and public discussions to describe a bridge that is unsafe or presents an imminent danger to the driving public, it is actually a technical term used by the Federal Highway Administration to classify and prioritize bridges for federal funding. Structurally deficient bridges receive priority for limited rehabilitation on replacement funds from the federal government. Bridges that have been determined to be unsafe or present an imminent public danger are closed to traffic.
- Population Estimates (U.S. Bureau of the Census)
- The Population Estimates Program publishes total resident population estimates and demographic components of change (births, deaths, and migration) each year. These estimates are used in federal funding allocations, as denominators for vital rates and per capita time series, as survey controls, and in monitoring recent demographic changes. The latest Subcounty Population Estimates—for July 1, 2007—were released on July 10, 2008. Highlights are summarized in the Press Release.
- Perry Commutes Death Sentence (Office of the Texas Governor)
- Texas Governor Rick Perry has commuted the death sentence of Kenneth Eugene Foster of San Antonio to life imprisonment after the Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles (TBPP) recommended such action. On May 6, 1997, Foster was sentenced to death for his role in the 1996 capital murder of Michael LaHood. Foster sought to have his death sentence commuted to a life sentence, arguing that he did not shoot the victim, but merely drove the car in which that the actual killer was riding. In addition, Foster was tried along with the actual killer, Maurecio Brown, and the jury that convicted Foster also considered punishment for both him and his co-defendant in the same proceeding.
- Texas College Readiness Standards (Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board)
- On October 25, 2007, a draft of the College Readiness Standards mandated by House Bill 1 (Third Called Session, 79th Texas Legislature) was approved by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) to be distributed for public comment. The College Readiness Standards (TCRS) identify what students should know and the skills they should have to be successful in entry-level college courses and the workforce. Read the full text of the draft TCRS and offer comments on the Public Comment Form, where you can analyze each set of standards separately and offer recommendations or modifications. The opportunity for public comment ends on December 10, 2007.
- Presidential Campaign Finance Map (Federal Election Commission)
- Campaign finance information for the 2008 Presidential Election through September 30, 2007 is now available via an easy-to-use map of the USA.
- H.R. 6: Renewable Fuels, Consumer Protection, and Energy Efficiency Act of 2007 (THOMAS)
- Congress has passed an energy bill that includes the first increase in auto efficiency standards in more than thirty years. It also includes measures aimed at reducing U.S. dependence on oil and reducing greenhouse emissions. Some measures were removed from the bill in order to get the President's agreement to sign it, including tax incentives for families and businesses to increase their use of renewable energy and increased taxes on oil companies.
- Gasoline Prices (University of Michigan)
- This Web page from the University of Michigan Documents Center provides links to government Web sites that provide an overview of, statistics on, and proposed solutions to the rapidly rising cost of gasoline.
- In re Marriage Cases (California Supreme Court)
- The California Supreme Court has declared unconstitutional a voter initiative banning same-sex marriage in the state. In 2004 Gavin Newsom, the mayor of San Francisco, started issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. The California Supreme Court voted to annul the mayor's marriages, citing a state law, Proposition 22, passed in 2000 by more than 60 percent of voters, that defined marriage as between a man and a woman. The following day lawsuits were filed challenging the constitutionality of Proposition 22. The suits have worked their way through the California court system, and after four years of litigation the state Supreme Court has issued a ruling that offers unwavering support to the 23 same-sex couples who were plaintiffs.
- Varnum v. Brien (Lambda Legal)
- During late 2005 and early 2006, six same-sex couples were denied marriage licenses by Timothy J. Brien, Recorder for Polk County, IA. Lambda Legal then sued on their behalf in Superior Court for permission to obtain marriage licenses and have their marriage registered. On August 30, 2007 Robert Hansen, judge for the Iowa District Court for Polk County, ruled that Iowa Code § 595.2(1), which forbids same-sex marriage, is unconstitutional and invalid and instructed the county to permit same-sex couples to marry. The next day the judge issued a stay on his ruling, pending a decision by the Supreme Court of Iowa. See a discussion of the issues raised by this case on the Religious Tolerance Web site.
- IPCC 4th Assessment Report: "Climate Change 2007" (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
- These reports by the three Working Groups of the IPCC provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the current state of knowledge on the scientific, technical, and socioeconomic aspects of climate change. The IPCC Website includes the full text and a summary for policymakers of the reports of each of these Working Groups: The report of Working Group I is on "The Physical Science Basis," the report of Working Group II is on "Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability," and the report of Working Group III is on "Mitigation of Climate Change." An AR4 Synthesis Report integrates the information around six topic areas.
- Premium Class Travel: Internal Control Weaknesses Governmentwide Led to Improper and Abusive Use of Premium Class Travel (Government Accountability Office)
- This review of travel spending by more than a dozen agencies from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006 found that 67 percent of first class or business class travel by executives or their employees, worth at least $146 million, was unauthorized, unjustified, or both. According to GSA data, the government fare for business class travel is typically more than 5 times the price of coach class travel for comparable routes, with some tickets costing more than 10 times as much. First class tickets can cost 15 times as much as coach.
- Influenza Pandemic: Further Efforts Are Needed to Ensure Clearer Federal Leadership Roles and an Effective National Strategy (GAO)
- According to an August 14 GAO report, an influenza pandemic is a real and significant potential threat facing the United States and the world. In 2005, the Homeland Security Council (HSC) issued a National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza and, in 2006, an Implementation Plan. This report assesses how clearly federal leadership roles and responsibilities are defined and the extent to which the Strategy and Plan address six characteristics of an effective national strategy. The GAO Web site also has a summary and a highlights page.
- Iran: Nuclear Intentions and Capabilities (Office of the Director of National Intelligence, National Intelligence Council)
- This National Intelligence Estimate judges that Iran halted its nuclear weapons program in 2003 (probably in response to international pressure), but is keeping the option open to develop nuclear weapons in the future, although it is unlikely to be able to produce enough material for a nuclear bomb until 2010 to 2015 (possibly later).
- Benchmark Assessment Report (White House)
- The White House has released its Benchmark Assessment Report on the situation in Iraq and the New Way Forward. This report is required as part of Section 1314 of Public Law 110-28. It includes an assessment of how the government of Iraq is performing in its efforts to achieve a series of specific benchmarks contained in the Act, as well as any adjustments to strategy that may be warranted in light of that performance. See also President Bush's related speech on The Way Forward in Iraq.
- Crocker Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq (Embassy of the United States - Baghdad, Iraq)
- On September 10, 2007, Ryan Crocker, U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, testified before Congress that a secure, stable, democratic Iraq at peace with its neighbors is attainable with "substantial U.S. resolve and commitment," and that signs of political progress occurring at a national level are "neither measured in benchmarks nor visible to those far from Baghdad." See other recent testimony on Iraq at the House Committee on Foreign Affairs Web site, the House Armed Services Committee Web Site, and the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Web site, and the Senate Committee on Armed Services Web site.
- Estimated Costs of U.S. Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and of Other Activities Related to the War on Terrorism (Congressional Budget Office)
On October 24, 2007, Peter Orszag, Director of the Congressional Budget Office, submitted this report to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on the Budget. The report totals the funding provided through fiscal year 2007 for military and diplomatic
operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and other activities associated with the war on
terrorism, as well as for related costs incurred by the Department of Veterans
Affairs (VA) for medical care, disability compensation, and survivors' benefits, then projects the total cost over the next 10 years of funding operations in support of the war on terrorism under two illustrative scenarios described by House Budget Committee Chairman John Spratt. The scenarios are meant to serve as an illustration of the budgetary impact of two different courses in the war on terrorism but are not intended to be a prediction of what will occur.
- Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security (Congressional Research Service)
- In this update of an earlier CRS report, the Congressional Research Service claims that attacks from al Qaeda are only a small percentage of the violence in Iraq and criticizes the Bush administration's statistics, noting that this false reporting on AQI has increased since Bush's surge began.
- Petraeus Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq (U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Foreign Affairs)
- On September 10 General David Petraeus, the top U.S. commander in Iraq, testified before Congress that he believed the United States could stabilize Iraq over time. See also the NPR story on this testimony. See other recent testimony on Iraq at the House Committee on Foreign Affairs Web site, the House Armed Services Committee Web Site, and the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Web site, and the Senate Committee on Armed Services Web site.
- Prospects for Iraq's Stability: Some Security Progress But Political Reconciliation Elusive (Director of National Intelligence)
- These unclassified key judgments are an update to the earlier report, Prospects for Iraq's Stability: A Challenging Road Ahead. This updated report said that "there have been measurable but uneven improvements in Iraq's security situation since our last National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq in January 2007" but that "the level of overall violence, including attacks on and casualties among civilians, remains high; Iraq's sectarian groups remain unreconciled; AQI retains the ability to conduct high-profile attacks; and to date, Iraqi political leaders remain unable to govern effectively. There have been modest improvements in economic output, budget execution, and government finances but fundamental structural problems continue to prevent sustained progress in economic growth and living conditions."
- The Report of the Independent Commission on the Security Forces of Iraq (U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services)
- Public Law 110-28, enacted on May 25, 2007, commissioned an independent private entity made up of individuals with credentials and expertise in military and law enforcement matters to conduct an independent assessment of the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF). The Commission found that in general, the Iraqi Security Forces, military and police, have made uneven progress, but that there should be increasing improvement in both their readiness and their capability to provide for the internal security of Iraq. The National Police should be disbanded and reorganized. Sectarianism in its units undermines its ability to provide security; the force is not viable in its current form. With regard to external dangers, the evidence indicates that the Iraqi Security Forces will not be able to secure Iraqi borders against conventional military threats in the near term. For other hearings on the Iraq War, see the U.S. Committee on Armed Forces Hearings Web site.
- Review of the Pre-Iraqi War Activities of the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (Inspector General, United States Department of Defense)
- In April, Senator Carl Levin release this newly declassified report by the Pentagon Inspector General, who concluded that Secretary Feith's office developed, produced, and then disseminated alternative intelligence assessments on the Iraq and al-Qaeda relationship, which included conclusions that were inconsistent with the consensus of the Intelligence Community. The Inspector General also concluded that these actions were inappropriate. Senator Levin also released the declassified briefing slides used by Secretary Feith's office in its presentation to senior White House officials, "Assessing the Relationship Between Iraq and al Qaida," which concluded incorrectly that "Intelligence indicates cooperation in all categories; mature, symbiotic relationship," and also asserted incorrectly that an alleged meeting in April 2001 in Prague between an Iraqi intelligence officer and lead 9/11 hijacker Mohammed Atta was a "known" contact. Senator Levin also issued a Press Release on the release of the report and slides.
- Securing, Stabilizing, and Rebuilding Iraq: Iraqi Government Has Not Met Most Legislative, Security, and Economic Benchmarks (Government Accountability Office)
- Public Law 110-28 requires GAO to report to Congress by September 1, 2007, on the status of achievement by the government of Iraq of 18 legislative, security, and economic benchmarks stemming from commitments first articulated by the Iraqi government in June 2006. This analysis shows that as of August 30, 2007, the Iraqi government met 3, partially met 4, and did not meet 11 of its 18 benchmarks. See also a summary of the report, a Statement of David M. Walker, Comptroller General of the United States, and a summary of David M. Walker's statement.
- War at Any Price?: The Total Economic Costs of the War Beyond the Federal Budget (Joint Economic Committee)
This November 13, 2007 report, written by Democratic members of the Joint Economic Committee, estimates the total costs of the long war in Afghanistan and Iraq to the American economy as a whole. The press release includes a brief summary. The Republican members of the Joint Economic Committee issued a response claiming the report should be withdrawn because it is politically
motivated and filled with errors and poor methodology. A second press release from the Republicans indicates that some errors were quietly corrected on the Web version.
- Court Order Permitting Internet Reconnection (Bureau of Indian Affairs)
- The Bureau of Indian Affairs Web site has been shut down since December 2001 because of security issues related to the Department of the Interior's computer systems housing Individual Indian Trust Data. In a major development related to the Cobell v. Kempthorne class action lawsuit against the federal government regarding mismanagement of Individual Indian Monies accounts, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia Circuit on May 14, 2008, issued an Internet reconnect order granting the defendants' motion to vacate a December 17, 2001, Consent Order Regarding Information Technology Security and has given its permission for the information technology systems of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the Office of Hearing and Appeals (OHA), the Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians (OST), and the Office of Historical Trust Accounting (OHTA) to be reconnected to the Internet.
- Change.gov (Office of the President-Elect)
- The Presidential Transition Act of 1963, as amended (3 U.S.C. 102 note) authorizes the Administrator of GSA to provide services and support to the Office of the president-elect from the day after the election until 30 days after the inauguration, to support the orderly transfer of executive power after a general election. This site provides information to the public in support of this important public purpose.
- Presidential Transition Resources (U.S. General Services Administration)
- The Presidential Transition Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-293) authorizes the General Services Administration (GSA) to develop a transition directory in consultation with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The Act provides that the transition directory "shall be a compilation of Federal publications and materials with supplementary materials developed by the Administrator that provides information on the officers, organization, and statutory and administrative authorities, functions, duties, responsibilities, and mission of each department and agency." Senate Report 106-348 clarifies that the directory is intended to "assist in navigating the many responsibilities that fall on a new administration" that is "confronted by an overwhelming amount of material."
- Serving the Congress and the Nation (U.S. Government Accountability Office)
- Following each presidential election, GAO serves as a resource to assist with the transition to a new Congress and administration. On this Web site, using its institutional knowledge and broad-based, nonpartisan work on matters across the government spectrum, GAO provides insight into, and recommendations for addressing, the nation's major issues, risks and challenges. Also located throughout the site are key reports for further research, as well as contact information for and video messages from GAO experts.
- The Presidential Transition (IBM Center for the Business of Government)
- This blog provides information on the 2008–2009 Presidential Transition and identifies the toughest management decisions facing the future government leaders.
- Serious Adverse Drug Events Reported to the Food and Drug Administration, 1998-2005 (Archives of Internal Medicine)
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has operatedthe Adverse Event Reporting System since 1998. It collects allvoluntary reports of adverse drug events submitted directlyto the agency or through drug manufacturers. A study of these records shows that from 1998 through 2005, reported serious adversedrug events increased 2.6-fold from 34 966 to 89 842,and fatal adverse drug events increased 2.7-fold from 5519 to15 107. Reported serious events increased 4 times fasterthan the total number of outpatient prescriptions during theperiod.
- 11 News exclusive: Inside the FBI's secret files on Coretta Scott King (KHOU-TV, Inc.)
- KHOU-TV in Houston and its investigative unit, 11 News Defenders, recently obtained numerous FBI files that reveal she was closely watched after the death of her husband, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The KHOU Web site includes a description of the files and links to selected documents.
- Electronic Reading Room (FBI)
- Access hundreds of FBI documents on famous people that have been requested over the years. Files can be browsed by name or topic.
- FBI's FOIA Website (FBI)
- Here you will find one-stop shopping to request information that may be found in the FBI's Central Records System. Make your own Freedom of Information Act request from the FBI to find out what information the FBI has collected in connection with an organization, business, investigation, historical event, or incident, a third party, a deceased person, or yourself
National Security Letters
- CRS Report RL33320, National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Legal Background and Recent Amendments (Federation of American Scientists)
Five federal statutes authorize intelligence officials to request certain business record information in connection with national security investigations. The authority to issue these National Security Letters (NSLs) is comparable to the authority to issue administrative subpoenas. The USA PATRIOT Act expanded the authority under four of the NSL statutes and created the fifth. Thereafter, the authority has been reported to have been widely used. Prospects of its continued use dimmed, however, after two lower federal courts held the lack of judicial review and the absolute
confidentiality requirements in one of the statutes rendered it constitutionally suspect. An abridged version of this report is available as CRS Report RS22406, National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments, by Charles Doyle.
- A Review of the FBI's Use of National Security Letters: Assessment of Corrective Actions and Examination of NSL Usage in 2006 (U.S. Department of Justice)
- The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 directed the Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General to review the effectiveness and use, including any improper or illegal use, of national security letters issued by the Department of Justice. The OIG's first report covered calendar years 2003–2005. This is the OIG's second report. It describes the response of the FBI and Department of Justice to serious misuse of NSL authorities described in the first report, and describes the FBI's use of NSLs in 2006.
- Newly Unredacted Documents Confirm Lack Of Oversight Of Military's Domestic Surveillance Powers (American Civil Liberties Union)
- In April 2007, the ACLU filed Freedom of Information Act requests with both the Defense Department and the CIA seeking all documents related to their use of National Security Letters (NSLs) to gain access to personal records of people in the United States. These documents reveal that the Department of Defense (DoD) is using the FBI to circumvent legal limits on its own NSL power and may have overstepped its authority to obtain private and sensitive records of people within the United States without court approval. The previously withheld records also reveal that the military is secretly accessing these private records without providing training, guidance, or any real recordkeeping. Scans of the newly unredacted documents are available on the ACLU Web site. More information about the ACLU's challenges to the NSL power is available at: www.aclu.org/nsl.
- NSL Documents Released by DOD (American Civil Liberties Union)
- These are all of the National Security Letters and related documents from the Department of Defense obtained by the ACLU through Freedom of Information Act requests. Includes Statistics on NSLs Produced by Department of Defense.
- DIGITAL TELEVISION (DTV): Tomorrow's TV Today! (Federal Communications Commission)
- In 1996, the U.S. Congress authorized the distribution of an additional broadcast channel to each broadcast TV station so that they could start a digital broadcast channel while simultaneously continuing their analog broadcast channel. After February 17, 2009, full-power television stations will only be allowed to broadcast in digital format, and analog televisions without digital converters will no longer work. This FCC Web site explains all aspects of the transition and answers questions consumers may have, including how they can be sure that their televisions will still work after the transition.
- The 9/11 Commission Report (GPO Access)
- The Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States provides a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks, including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks. It also includes recommendations designed to guard against future attacks.
- Executive Summary: OIG Report on CIA Accountability With Respect to the 9/11 Attacks (Central Intelligence Agency)
- On August 3, 2007 the President signed into law H.R.1, Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission. One of the provisions of that bill deals with a report that the CIA's Office of Inspector General prepared on the performance of the CIA prior to September 11th. The Inspector General of the CIA was required to make available to the public a version of the report's executive summary, declassified to the maximum extent possible. This is that executive summary, released (under protest) by the Inspector General, who also issued a Director's Statement to Employees explaining his position on the release of the executive summary. The full report is not currently available to the public.
- National Strategy on Homeland Security (The White House)
- This new strategy is intended to guide, organize, and unify the nation's homeland security efforts by providing a common framework for focusing the nation's efforts on the following four goals: preventing and disrupting terrorist attacks; protecting the American people, our critical infrastructure, and key resources; responding to and recovering from incidents that do occur; and continuing to strengthen the foundation to ensure our long-term success. It builds on the first National Strategy for Homeland Security, issued in July 2002, and complements both the National Security Strategy issued in March 2006 and the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism issued in September 2006. The White House Web site includes a full text in HTML format, a full text in PDF format, and a Fact Sheet summarizing the report,
- Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat (New York City Police Department)
- The aim of this report is to assist policymakers and law enforcement officials, both in Washington and throughout the country, by providing a thorough understanding of the kind of threat we face domestically from local residents and citizens, and how these "unremarkable" people with little or no criminal history become terrorists. It also seeks to contribute to the debate among intelligence and law enforcement agencies on how best to counter this emerging threat by better understanding what constitutes the radicalization process.
- Communist Attempts to Elicit False Confessions from Air Force Prisoners of War (PubMed)
- This report, written by Albert D. Biderman, a sociologist working for the Air Force, is based on interviews with American prisoners returning from North Korea, some of whom had been filmed by their Chinese interrogators confessing to germ warfare and other atrocities while under torture. In 2002, psychologists who direct the training program known as SERE (Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape), originally created out of concern for false confessions being elicited from American prisoners under torture, began training military personnel in counter-resistance interrogation techniques used to elicit confessions from detainees at Guantánamo Bay. One of the charts used in this training was taken verbatim from Dr. Biderman's report on Chinese communist interrogation techniques. See also this article in The New York Times: "China Inspired Interrogations at Guantánamo."
- Memorandum for William J. Haynes II General Counsel for the Department of Defense, Re: Military Interrogation of Unlawful Combatants Held Outside the United States (American Civil Liberties Union)
- This memo from John C. Yoo, Deputy Assistant Attorney General advises that the president is not legally bound by U.S. or international laws against torture when interrogating alien unlawful combatants held outside the United States. See also the summary and comments in an ACLU news release.
- Military Commissions Act (American Civil Liberties Union)
- In the final hours before adjourning in 2006, Congress passed and the president signed the Military Commissions Act (MCA), which gives the president absolute power to designate enemy combatants, and to set his own definitions for torture. This Web site provides resources for restoring habeas corpus and fixing the MCA.
- Origins of Aggressive Interrogation Techniques (Senate Committee on Armed Forces)
- This hearing investigates the origins of aggressive interrogation techniques used against detainees in U.S. custody. The evidence presented here indicates that senior officials in the United States government sought out information on aggressive techniques, twisted the law to create the appearance of their legality, and authorized their use against detainees. See also the Index of Documents submitted as evidence at the hearing.
- U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
- The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from consumer products. The CPSC recently announced the recall of several toys manufactured in China, usually because they contain lead or have small, loose parts that can fall off and present a choking hazard. Consumers should stop using these products immediately unless otherwise instructed. The CPSC Home Page includes links to information about recent recalls. Check out Recalls and Product Safety News to keep your family safe.
- Childhood Lead Exposure (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- This brochure from the CDC provides information on how children are exposed to lead, the potential dangers of lead exposure, and ways to prevent it. The Web site includes an FAQ and links to information about recalled products.
- Toy Jewelry and Lead Exposure (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- This FAQ describes the dangers of exposing children to toy jewelry that contains lead, describes what to do if your child may have been exposed to lead, and tells how to obtain information about recalls.
- Report of the Virginia Tech Review Panel (Governor of Virginia)
- On April 16, 2007, student Seung Hui Cho shot to death 32 students and faculty of Virginia Tech Virginia Governor Tim Kaine appointed a panel to review the events leading up to this incident; the handling of incidents by public safety officers, emergency services providers, and the University; and the services subsequently provided to families, survivors, care-givers, and the community. This report summarizes the panel's findings and makes more than 70 recommendations directed to colleges, universities, law enforcement officials, emergency services providers, law makers, and other public officials in Virginia and elsewhere.