M‚Äčost Scholarly and Professional Style Manuals now include advice on how to cite electronic sources.

Although a citation to a publication in electronic format follows basically the same principles as a citation to a paper document, citing electronic publications presents its own peculiar challenges. For instance:

  • A document may only have a file name instead of a title, or a login name instead of an author.
  • The content of a Web site may change frequently without notice, so that the date a site is accessed becomes more important than a publication date or edition. 
  • The concept of pagination as it pertains to paper publications has little or no meaning with reference to an electronic document. 

The following sources provide guidance on how to cite electronic sources so that the relevant information can be identified consistently and accurately, and the source can be retrieved by the reader when necessary.

When citing an electronic source, it is better to risk providing too much information rather than too little. Be sure that your reader has enough information to go back to your source if necessary.

APA Style

APSA Style

Chicago/Turabian Style

  • Chicago Manual of Style: Web Sources Basic guidelines and samples of citations for various online documents in Chicago style from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL).
  • Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide General guide to citing in both the notes and bibliography style and the author-date style. Includes examples of citations to various types of electronic publications.

MLA Style

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